Cement is the most important building construction material. It has the property of setting into hard mass after mixing with water in required amount. It is also known as Portland cement because after setting into hard mass it resembles with the rocks found in Portland in United Kingdom. It is fine grey powder which is made from limestone and clay.
The major cement producing countries in the world are China, Japan, United States of America and India. The main cement producing plants in our country are in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The production of cement in our country started in 1904 at Chennai in Tamil Nadu.
The chemical formula of cement is CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3
Uses of Cement
Cement is used in different forms such as mortar, concrete and reinforced concrete cement (RCC).
A mixture of cement, sand and water is called mortar. It is prepared by mixing 1 part of cement with 3 parts of sand and then adding the required amount of water. It has the capacity to set into hard mass after sometime that is why it is used for binding the bricks and stones and for plastering of walls and roofs of buildings.
A mixture of cement, gravel, coarse sand and water is called concrete. It becomes very hard on setting that is why it is used for making roofs, floors, pavements, roads and bridges etc.
3. Reinforced Concrete Cement (RCC)
Reinforce means to make stronger. Concrete can be made stronger by putting a framework of iron or steel inside it. Thus we can define the reinforced concrete cement as the concrete which is made stronger by putting iron or steel framework inside it. The RCC possesses a great strength that is why it is used for making of pillars and roofs of buildings, dams, tunnels, bridges, pipes of water supply and sewage pipes etc.
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