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       Minerals are the inorganic elements or compounds which are found naturally in earth’s crust. Some minerals contain a high percentage of the particular metal and the metal can be extracted from them. Minerals may or may not contain objectionable impurities.


       Those minerals from which the metals can be extracted conveniently and profitably are called ores. An ore contains a good Percentage of metal and there are no objectionable impurities in it. Thus, we can say that all the ores are minerals but all the minerals are not ores. Ores are mined from the earth. When an ore is mined from the earth, a lot of impurities such as sand and rocky materials are always found in it. These unwanted impurities such as sand, rocky material, earthy particles, lime stone etc. which are present in an ore are known as Gangue.

Types of Ores

       Ores are of many types. But, the important types of ores which are used for the extraction of metals are:

1. Sulphide Ores e.g. ZnS and Cu2S
2. Carbonate Ores e.g. CaCO3 and ZnCO3
3. Oxide Ores e.g. Al2O3 and Cu2O
4. Halide e.g. NaCl and CaF2

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