Carbon Compounds

CARBON COMPOUNDS


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EXAMPLES OF POLYMERS



1) Rubber

       Rubber occurs in nature as well as it is obtained by synthetic methods.

Natural Rubber

       Natural rubber is obtained as latex from rubber trees. The monomer of natural rubber is isoprene. There may be as many as 11000 to 20000 isoprene units in a polymer chain of natural rubber.

natural rubber is obtained as latex from monomer of natural rubber i.e. isoprene
NaturalRubber


Properties of Natural Rubber

       It is soft and sticky material which is insoluble in water. When a rubber piece is stretched, its length increases greatly. And on releasing the stretched rubber piece, it returns to its original size.

Vulcanization of Rubber

       The process of heating natural rubber with Sulphur to improve its properties is called vulcanization of rubber. Vulcanization of rubber makes the rubber hard, strong and more elastic and loses its sticky properties.

Hardening of Rubber

        Rubber is hardened by adding carbon black in it.

Synthetic Rubber

       Synthetic rubber means artificial rubber. It is superior to natural rubber. The two important synthetic rubbers are:

  1. Neoprene rubber, and
  2. Thiokol

a) Neoprene Rubber

       The monomer of neoprene rubber is chloroprene. It was prepared in 1931.

Neoprene is Formed From Chloroprene


Uses of Neoprene Rubber

        Following are the uses of neoprene rubber:

  1. It is used for making insulation of electric wires.
  2. It is used for making belts in industry and coal mines.
  3. It is used for making hoses for petrol delivery and transporting oil.

b) Thiokol Rubber

        The monomer of Thiokol rubber is ethylene polysulphide.

2) Polythene

       Polythene is formed by heating ethene at temperature of 460 K to 480 K and applying high pressure.

Polythene is Formed by heating ethene


Uses of Polythene

       Following are the uses of polythene:


  1. It is used for insulation of electric wires.
  2. It is used in manufacture of bags, toys and pipes.

3) Polypropene

        Polypropene is formed by polymerization of propene.

Polypropene is Formed by polymerization of Propene


Uses of Polypropene

       Following are the uses of polypropene:

  1. It is used for making carpets, ropes and fishing nets.
  2. It is used for making seat covers.

4) Buna-S-Rubber

       It is prepared by polymerization of 1, 3–Butadiene and Styrene in the presence of sodium.

Buna-S-Rubber is prepared by polymerization of 1, 3–Butadiene and Styrene

Tyres


This rubber is called Buna-S-Rubber because in it Bu stands for butadiene, na for Sodium and S for Sulphur.

Uses of Buna-S-Rubber

  1. It is used for making rubber tyres and footwear.
  2. It is also used for making belts.

5) Teflon or Polytetrafluoroethane or (PTFE)

       Teflon is prepared by polymerization of tetrafluoroethane.

Teflon is prepared by polymerization of tetrafluoroethane

Teflon


    Uses of Teflon

  1. It is used for making non-stick cooking utesnsils.
  2. It is used for making gaskets, pump packings and seals.

6) Nylon

        Nylon is a polyamide fibre. A polyamide fibre is made when a carbon compound containing two carboxylic acid groups is reacted with another carbon compound containing two amino groups.

Nylon is formed by polymerization of hexamethylene diamine with adipic acid.



Nylon is prepared by polymerization of hexamethylene diamine

Nylon


    Uses of Nylon

  1. It is used for making fibres and ropes.
  2. It is used for making footwears and bristles of tooth brushes.

7) Polyesters

        A polyester fibre is prepared by polymerization of a dicarboxylic acid with dihydric alcohols. An important example of polyester is terylene.

polyester

8) Terylene

        Terylene is prepared by polymerization of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol.

Terylene is prepared by polymerization of terephthalic acid


    Uses of Polyester Fibres

  1. These are used for making clothes, sarees, dress materials and curtains.
  2. These are used for making conveyor belts.
  3. These are used for making sails of sail boats.