As we have already discussed that the birth of a child can take place only after the fertilization of eggs by sperm. So we can avoid the birth of a child if we adopt some special method or techniques. The methods do not allow the sperms produced during copulation by a man to meet with the eggs of his wife. Thus these methods check the fertilization of an egg by sperms.
The prevention of pregnancy in women by preventing fertilization of egg by sperms is called contraception, while the device or chemical which prevents pregnancy in women is called contraceptive. The pregnancy in women can be prevented by adopting following methods:
1. Barrier methods
2. Chemical methods
3. Surgical methods
In barrier methods, various physical devices are used which prevent the flow of semen in the fallopian tubes of the females. For example, condoms, diaphragm, cervical caps etc. Actually these devices check the meeting of sperms with egg. Thus these devices act as a barrier between the eggs and sperms.
In chemical methods, the vagina is flushed by a spermicidal solution immediately after the sexual intercourse such as vinegar in water which prevents the contraception.
The females also use two types of pills called oral pills and vaginal pills. The oral pills are taken by mouth and are also called oral contraceptives (OCs). The oral pills contain synthetic hormones which stop the ovaries from releasing ova or eggs. On the other hand, the vaginal pills kill the sperms which are introduced by a man in the vagina of a woman.
Inter Uterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs)
This is the most effective mechanical method of preventing contraception. In this method the inter-uterine contraceptive devices such as Copper T is placed permanently inside the uterus of the female to prevent the implantation of embryo with uterus.
These methods involve either the removal of the gonads of an individual or interrupting the passage of the gametes through the genital ducts. These methods are called vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females.
In this method the vas deferens from each testis is tied in two places and the part in between is cut out. In this way the sperms continues to be formed by the testes but no sperm will be able to reach the urethra. After vasectomy the erection of penis remains unimpaired.
In this method the fallopian tubes of the female are tied in two places and the part in between is cut out. In this way the eggs continue to be released by the ovaries but they cannot reach to uterus. In this way the contraception is prevented.