It is the branch of science which deals with the synthesis of artificial genes, repair of genes and combination of genes of two different organisms.
The technique for the combination of genes of two different organisms involves the cutting of a particular gene (or a particular segment of DNA) with the help of certain enzymes and then inserting them into the chromosomes of another organism so that both types of genes can combine with each other and produce a new organism having characteristics of both genes.
The organisms which are genetically modified by inserting the genes from other organisms into them are known as ‘Transgenic organisms’ or ‘genetically modified organisms’ (GMO).
Importance of Genetic Engineering
Following is the importance of genetic engineering:
- Genetic engineering is used for making various types of medicines. The treatment of diseases which is done with the help of genetic engineered medicines is called ‘gene therapy’.
- Genetic engineering helps in finding out the characteristics of genetic materials like that of DNA and RNA.
- With the help of genetic engineering we can change those genes of a person which are harmful for him.
- With the help of genetic engineering the scientists are also trying to insert the genes of nitrogen fixing bacteria rhizobium in non-leguminous plants so that the non-leguminous plants can also do fixation of free nitrogen gas present in the atmosphere.
- With the help of genetic engineering it is possible to make a human with desired characters.
Test Your Understanding and Answer These Questions:
- What are transgenic organisms?
- Expand GMO.
- Explain importance of genetic engineering.