We know that all the plants and animals die after completing their life cycle. Thus, new organisms must be produced to take their place. The process of formation of new organisms of a species from pre existing ones is called reproduction. Reproduction is the most important biological activity of living organisms. It ensures the continuity of a particular species of organisms on earth by producing more and more individuals of that particular species.
Types of Reproduction
Reproduction is of two types:
1. Asexual reproduction
2. Sexual reproduction
The production of offspring by a single parent without the formation and fusion of gametes is called asexual reproduction. Thus in asexual reproduction only one parent is needed to produce a new organism i.e. in the asexual reproduction the involvement of male and female gamete is not necessary. This is the simplest method of reproduction and brings about very fast increase in the population of an organism.
Characteristics of asexual reproduction
Following are the important characteristics of asexual reproduction:
- Asexual reproduction helps in production of a large number of individuals from a single parent.
- Asexual reproduction involves only one parent i.e. a large number of individual can be produced from a single parent.
- The new individuals formed by asexual reproduction are usually genetically similar to their parent.
- The chance of mutations or variations is very less.
- Asexual reproduction takes place without involvement of male and female gametes.
Methods of Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction can take place in an organism by following methods:
- Spore formation
- Vegetative reproduction
Test Your Understanding and Answer These Questions:
- Define reproduction.
- What are types of reproduction?
- What is asexual reproduction?
- What are characteristic of asexual reproduction?
- Write names of different methods of asexual reproduction.
- What is the common method of reproduction in unicellular organisms?